Category Archives: Pedagogy/Teaching

Music Classroom as the Third Teacher

This spring I gave a talk at the Mountain Lake Symposium on the topic of classroom design. I thought I’d share a few practical ideas from that talk here, especially for music teachers who are dreaming up new ideas for the upcoming school year. I would venture to guess that many of us focus our curriculum planning and design attentions on three major elements: (1) the content area (music, instruments, songs, books), (2) teaching (approaches, techniques, methods), and (3) students (needs, interests, backgrounds). This makes sense, as these are three important and complex elements of our practice. In my post today, though, I want to focus on a missing element from this model, something so commonplace and visible, that it is rendered invisible—the classroom environment.

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This was not something invisible to one of the pioneers of the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, Loris Malaguzzi. He argued that the classroom environment was so important to learning that it was the third teacher–after adults and children. Malaguzzi stressed the importance of constructing classrooms that act as agents in the educational process. When a classroom is functioning like a third teacher, it feels safe and welcoming to children, it is responsive to children’s curiosities and interests, and it furthers learning and encourages social engagement. The design of the classroom environment is an important (sometimes neglected) element of curriculum design that deserves our attention.

As you spend time this summer studying new music, constructing curriculum units, and planning field trips for your students, you might also think about the design (or re-design) of your music classroom to make it a “third teacher.” While some things are fixed, like walls and windows, many things are within your control. Think about your music classroom less as a  fixed shell, designed to contain students in manageable learning environments, and more like a space that can be inviting, dynamic, and conducive to learning. It can be a place that sparks children’s wonder and curiosities about music. How could you make the metaphorical walls around your classroom more porous? How could you make furniture and objects serve the curriculum to further student learning? Here are a few (Reggio-inspired) guiding principles to consider as you think about re-designing your music classroom this fall.

IMG_7751photo credit: Andrew Kromholz

AESTHETICS. The aesthetic of the classroom is more than bulletin boards and decorations. It is about the feelings that the music classroom conveys. Does it feel like an industrial space? A living room? A factory? A music production studio? Is there any place in the classroom that seems inviting enough that you would want to sit on the floor and listen to music or gather around to sing?  A Reggio-inspired classroom is one that strives to make classrooms feel warm and inviting, much like a home.  Think about what you do to make your home feel warm, inviting, and comfortable.  How might you design your classroom with that in mind? A Reggio classroom might have soft home-like furniture, table lamps for warmer lighting, and attractive decorative elements. Decorations need not be childish or limited to those image/decorations that are designed specifically for classrooms (you know the classroom cut-out cartoonish figures I am talking about).  What about an art print depicting music (Picasso’s Three Musicians) or better yet, children’s depictions of three musicians or pictures of students in musical trios? Think about bringing elements from nature in the space, including natural light, living plants, and natural materials such as wood and stone. Many classrooms, especially elementary classrooms, can become overly cluttered with ready-made school decorations, student work, charts, posters, materials, etc. which can be distracting and overwhelming to children. Remember the axiom adopted by modernist architect, Mies van der Rohe: “less is more.”


SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT. How does the classroom design encourage (or discourage) collaboration, interactions, and relationships among people? Chairs and working tables that are light and easily movable are ideal. How can you prepare the furniture you anticipate will be needed for a particular activity or project in the classroom such that students can learn from you and from each other?  A fixed, teacher-always-at-the-center, layout of furniture is not always the most conducive to learning. The music classroom might be conceived of in zones, each with different functions. Think of the social functions of different zones in your home: (a) the reading nook–a zone for contemplation and individual musical experiences, like listening, (b) the large kitchen table–a zone for small group work, discussions, or experimentation, (c) the hearth–a zone for more intimate, informal gatherings for reading, chamber music, or group singing, (d) the backyard–a space for free play and experimentation. These are just a few of the many ideas you might dream up.

Even the things you choose to display on the walls, windows, and doors can lead to greater social engagement. For instance, walls which display school-ready holiday decorations, pictures of composers, or rhythmic note value charts usually do little to encourage conversations or questioning. They tell closed stories. Instead, you might choose to decorate walls with students’ music compositions, drawings inspired by listening experiences, or photographs of students engaged in learning or performance. These tell more open stories, inviting conversations with parents, other teachers, administrators, and/or students.  They also make student learning and classroom engagements visible.

TRANSPARENCY. Speaking of the visible, one design principle of the Reggio classroom is transparency. That is, musical instruments and other materials and equipment for learning should not be stored out of sight, in a closet or an opaque storage bin. Instead, they should be displayed in transparent containers or on shelves so that children can see them. In sight, children are more apt to ask questions about them; teachers may be more apt to bring them out to use, study, or draw upon in a moment’s notice. A teacher might also choose to move an object to a prominent place, where children are bound to stumble upon it, examine it, and ask questions about it. You might sit a ceramic ocarina in a prominent place for children to notice as they come into the room. Moving an object into a prominent space to capture children’s attention is called a provocation. The idea is that the placement of an object sparks wonder, leads to questions, and allows for the curriculum to emerge from the child. How might students respond to seeing the inside of a piano at work? Transparency can be interpreted in numerous ways and inform classroom design decisions.

RE-IMAGINE. In a 2016 interview on On Being, Yo-Yo Ma compared performing to hosting guests at a dinner party–an act of hospitality. Its purpose, he said, “is that we’re communing together and we want this moment to be really special for all of us. Because otherwise, why bother to have come at all?” How might you design your music classroom differently if you were to think of it as your home, where you host guests (children, parents, other teachers) for a limited period of time? What metaphor best described the classroom environment you hope to create? I hope this blog posts sparks your creativity in re-thinking the space  you call home during most of your waking hours. I’d love to see photos of your reimagined spaces for music learning.


Disseminating our Work

Screen shot 2014-04-13 at 5.48.38 PMI had the privilege of presenting a session with two PhD students and four PhD candidates from the University of Miami Frost School of Music (Sarah Bowman, Andrew Dahan, Craig Denison, Susana Lalama, Stanley Haskins, Sandra Sanchez) at the recent conference of the National Association for Music Education in St Louis. I thought I would add this post for those who are interested in doctoral education/curriculum and might be interested in knowing more about what we presented. Here is a sample:

Those who of us who work or will work as music teacher educators in doctoral degree-granting institutions are centrally concerned with preparing the next generation of music teacher educators and scholars. In reflecting on or preparing for the creation of the doctoral curriculum, we might ask some essential questions:

  1. What is it that we want students to know, understand, and be able to do?
  2. What is essential to the formation of a scholar and his/her future success in the field?

Many will probably agree that doctoral programs in music education are designed, in part, to enable students to ask important and meaningful questions, synthesize prior research and scholarship in music education and related fields, design and conduct research independently, examine and address perplexing pedagogical questions, and effectively share the results of their work with others.

Accomplishing these goals could be facilitated by the application of “signature pedagogies,” a term coined and described by Lee Shulman (2005) as characteristic forms of teaching and learning that prepare future professionals for developing specific habits within a given discipline. Shulman suggests pedagogy should closely align with the professional roles that a given program is designed to prepare students to fill. Understanding is necessary but not sufficient. A person should also be prepared to act, to perform, and practice.

What does that mean for music education professors? It means acting, performing and practicing as teachers, advisers, and researchers, serving the needs of our students, our universities, as well as our local and broader communities. We do that, in part, by disseminating our work through publications and presentations, yet many aspects of these processes are unclear and challenging to those beginning their career in academia. This, in part, led to the design of a one-credit doctoral seminar on disseminating scholarship in music education.

The topic of disseminating scholarship was one of many ideas I bounced around for doctoral students to choose from for a one-hour special topics seminar. The majority were interested in the topic for most it was because they realized it was so critical to their role as future professors, for others it seemed to be because of the mysteries of getting work published (i.e., peer review), and for a few it was to learn more about ways to be more disciplined writers.

The seminar was designed around the various ways that music education academics might disseminate their work (both traditional and emergent) and framed around written and spoken forms. The course also offered students opportunities to review books on subtopics of their interest, find related readings, lead class discussions, formally present on selected topics, and write proposals for specific venues.Screen shot 2014-04-13 at 6.02.13 PM

The purpose of our session was to share our experiences in this graduate seminar and consider how it shaped our thinking and helped to develop specific habits of the hand and mind.

If you’d like to learn more about the seminar and the resources we used, go to our seminar PREZI by following this link:

Mapping, Collaborating, and Connecting through PREZI

Many of you may know Prezi ( as an online presentation tool that frees you from the linearity of Powerpoint, but did you know that it makes for a great mind mapping tool as well? In the last three years I have primarily used it that way in my classes, during brainstorming sessions, in meetings, and for project planning and management. I thought I would share a few of the ways I have been using Prezi for instructional purposes along with some recent Prezis.  (As my students know, I usually can’t contain my excitement about all it can do, so simply)

MAPPING. I recently used Prezi on the first day of the Smithsonian Folkways World Music Pedagogy course at the University of Miami as a way to introduce participants to the musics of the world we would be studying throughout the school year. Initially it served as a way to provide an overview of the course. As I videotaped the grScreen shot 2013-10-05 at 10.22.05 AMoup learning songs, dances, games, and music, I realized Prezi could also serve as a repository for these videos. I have since given participants in the program access to the Prezi so they can recall the songs, note how the songs performed differ from the notated versions, or link to the Smithsonian music collection. As the course evolves, I imagine it will include many other things as well. At the end of the six sessions, spread over a school year, we will have documented the many musical cultures studied, the curricular frameworks discussed, and the projects created. This is a work in progress. You might want to check back to see how it has changed in six months.

COLLABORATING. In the past I used to bring in large posters and markers into class when I wanted my classes to break up into small groups to brainstorm or work on an in-class project. Class members would usually assemble into groups around the classroom to work on their posters (if you were my student at some point, you probably remember doing that). Screen shot 2013-10-05 at 10.24.36 AMNow I use Prezi as a way for students to work collaboratively, documenting their thinking and ideas. For instance, in my History and Philosophy of Music Education course this semester, I had students (all of whom I granted editing access to our class Prezi) synthesize some of the key ideas of formalism, utilitarianism, praxialism, contextualism on Prezi.   We could see our individual avatars moving through the Prezi, adding images, text, and videos in real time.

CONNECTING. I’ve been using Prezi in my general music methods courses for three years now. Each semester, I start with a blank Prezi; each class period is an opportunity for us to build and extend it. In so doing, we map what we are learning from the readings,  experiences in the field, and in-class discussions. We also use it as a way to make inter- and intra-unit connections. Many of the videos I ask students to watch are found on the Prezi, as well as videos and books we recommend one another because of their relevance to the course content. You can also see students’ illustrations, representing their visions of the elementary music classroom (they are actually kind of fun, revealing, and funny all rolled into one). Like the prior Prezi, this has no animation and is a work in progress.

I hope this blog entry gives you some ideas for how you might use Prezi or some other mind mapping tool in your own teaching. I’d love to hear how some of you are using it in your own work.

Towards a More Culturally Responsive Music Pedagogy


If you have an interest in making music pedagogy more culturally responsive, I invite you to read an article that I recently wrote for General Music Today called, Towards a More Culturally Responsive Music Classroom. In this article I seek to characterize culturally responsive teaching and consider how it differs from other pedagogical approaches in music that have been explicitly informed by culture, such as multicultural music education. Stretching the work of Gloria Ladson-Billings and Geneva Gay into music learning contexts, I consider how we might move our attention from the things we teach to the people we work with in socio-musical learning environments such as classrooms and community centers. Finally, I discuss ideas for making these environments more culturally responsive around five pedagogical action points:

·      See and come to know students

·      Create a social learning community

·      Recognize multiple perspectives and positions

·      Connect beyond the classroom

·      Select music and materials with culture in mind

I would love to know how others have approached culturally responsive pedagogy in the arts.

From Idea to Dogma

This afternoon I was reading Janet Mills’ book, Music in the School, for a project I am currently working on, when I stumbled upon an interesting conjecture she made about the cyclical pattern of curriculum development in music. I think it is worth sharing because it provides a perspective on the evolution of curricular and instructional ideas that animate the work of many educators.  Mills describes this cycle as beginning with a (1) very good idea that is developed. For example, Guild Keetman and Carl Orff developed an innovative idea for artistically educating students in Bavaria, during the first half of the twentieth century. This is followed by a period when disciples (her choice of word) observe, work with, and learn from the original developer(s) and (2) the idea grows, takes root, and spreads. The disciples, who learned from or with the developers, then (3) pass on the idea to second-generation disciples. TheIMG_0573se individuals may or may not have worked with the developers and may only learn from secondary sources.  In so doing, they focus more on how they are supposed to do something than on asking why they should be doing that something. The (4) very good idea starts to fade to dogma. Mills states, “As the content of the curriculum becomes disconnected from the very good idea, practices develop that would be anathema to the originator, but which are still credited to the very good idea” (p. 96). For example, meaningfully transplanting the philosophical and curricular ideas of Kodály from Hungary to another time and place (21st century UK) requires a deep understanding and critical thought of its broad aims, that could be easily become obfuscated if dogma (pitch and rhythmic sequence) has already overshadowed the idea (musical fluency). When (5) dogma becomes the focus, gurus (again her word choice) replace the disciples. The gurus train teachers, provide recipes, market products, and contribute to a cottage industry around those good ideas. At this point, teachers might fail to ask why they are doing what they are doing because it just seems to “work” in the classroom. Practice may lose relevance and meaning for the very people for whom these ideas were first developed—the students. Mills claims that over time this leads to the (6) failure and disuse of the dogma, until (7) another very good idea is developed.

I leave you with some lingering questions and a final thought. Are some or all of the theories, approaches, methods, or philosophies that guide teaching practices on a wide scale victim to this or other cycles? What role do our national organizations and leaders play in this process? How do they play into this model? How can the forces imbedded within any of these stages, if they do hold up to scrutiny (especially 2-6), be disrupted, challenged, or at the least made more transparent? This last question in particular brings to mind Cathy Benedict’s (2009) reminder that we “need to interrogate the indiscriminate embracing of these methods as a possible form of control and coercion, as well as the possible appropriation of musicking as a way to increase the social capital of music teachers” (p. 222).

References and Articles of Interest
Abril, C. R. (2013). Critical issues in Orff Schulwerk. In C. Wang (Ed.) Orff Schulwerk: Reflections and direction. Chicago: GIA Press.
Benedict, C. (2009). Processes of alienation: Marx, Orff and Kodaly. British Journal of
Music Education, 26(2), 213-224.
Bennett, P. D. (2005). So, Why Sol-Mi? Music Educators Journal, 91(3), 43.
Mills, J. (2005). Music in the school. New York: Oxford University Press.

Documentary on Sam Pilafian

Master tubist and music pedagogue, Sam Pilafian, was the focus of an examination conducted and documentary created by University of Miami Master’s student, Elizabeth Elliott. She  has great interest in matters related to education, teaching and learning and social equity and is studying conducting with Gary Green at the Frost School. This is the product of a project on pedagogy that she created in our Seminar in Music Education.

The Pedagogy of SAM PILAFIAN by Elizabeth Elliott in Seminar in Music Education at University of Miami (password: fundamentals)